Objective information about financial planning, investments, and retirement plans

7 Tips to Become a 401(k) Millionaire

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According to Fidelity, the average balance of 401(k) plan participants grew to a record high of $91,300 at the end of 2014.  This data is from plans using the Fidelity platform.

According to Fidelity about 72,000 participants had a balance of $1 million which is about double the number at the end of 2012 and about 5 times the number at the end of 2008.  What their secret?  Here are 7 tips to become a 401(k) millionaire or to at least maximize the value of your 401(k) account.

Be consistent and persistent 

Investing in your 401(k) plan is more of a marathon than a sprint.  Maintain and increase your salary deferrals in good markets and bad.

Contribute enough 

In an ideal world every 401(k) investor would max out their annual salary deferrals to their plan which are currently $18,000 and $24,000 for those who are 50 or over.  If you are just turning 50 this year or if you are older be sure to take advantage of the $6,000 catch-up contribution that is available to you.  Even if you plan limits the amount that you can contribute because of testing or other issues this catch-up amount is not impacted.  It is also not automatic so be sure to let your plan administrator know that you want to contribute at that level. 

According to the Fidelity study the average contribution rate for those with a $1 million balance was 16 percent, while the average contribution across all 401(k) investors they surveyed was about 8 percent.  The 16 percent contribution rate translated to a bit over $21,000 for the millionaire group.

As I’ve said in past 401(k) posts on this site it is important to contribute as much as you can.  If you can only afford to defer 3 percent this year, that’s a start.  Next year try to hit 4 percent or more.  As a general rule it is a good goal to contribute at least enough to earn the full matching if your employer offers one.

Take appropriate risks 

As with any sort of investment account be sure that you are investing in accordance with your financial plan, your age and your risk tolerance.  I can’t tell you how many times I’ve seen lists of plan participants and see participants in their 20s with all or a large percentage of their account in the plan’s money market or stable value option.

Your account can’t grow if you don’t take some risk.  

Don’t assume Target Date Funds are the answer 

Target Date Funds are big business for the mutual fund companies offering them.  They also represent a “safe harbor” from liability for your employer.  I’m not saying they are a bad option but I’m also not saying they are the best option for you.

I like TDFs for younger investors say those in their 20s who may not have other investments outside of the plan.  The TDF offers an instant diversified portfolio for them.

Once you’ve been working for a while you should have some outside investments.  By the time you are say in your 40s you should consider a more tailored portfolio that fits you overall situation.

Additionally Target Date Funds all have a glide path into retirement.  They are all a bit different, you need to understand if the glide path offered by the TDF family in your plan is right for you. 

Invest during a long bull market 

This is a bit sarcastic but the bull market for stocks that started in March of 2009 is in part why we’ve seen a surge in 401(k) millionaires and in 401(k) balances in general.  The equity allocations of 401(k) portfolios have driven the values higher.

The flip side are those who swore off stocks at the depths of the 2008-2009 market downturn have missed one of the better opportunities in history to increase their 401(k) balance and their overall retirement nest egg.

Don’t fumble the ball before crossing the goal line 

We’ve all seen those “hotdogs” running for a sure touchdown only to spike the ball in celebration before crossing the goal line.

The 401(k) equivalent of this is to just let your account run in a bull market like this one and not rebalance it back to your target allocation.  If your target is 60 percent in stocks and it’s grown to 80 percent in equities due to the run up of the past few years you might well be a 401(k) millionaire.

It is just as likely that you may become a former 401(k) millionaire if you don’t rebalance.  The stock market has a funny way of punishing investors who are too aggressive or who don’t manage their investments.

Pay attention to those old 401(k) accounts 

Whether becoming a 401(k) millionaire in your current 401(k) account or combined across several accounts the points mentioned above still apply.  In addition it is important to be proactive with your 401(k) account when you leave a job.  Whether you roll the account over to an IRA, leave it in the old plan or roll it to a new employer’s plan if allowed do something, make a decision.  Leaving an old 401(k) account unattended is wasting this money and can be a huge detriment to your retirement savings efforts.

The Bottom Line 

Whether or not you actually amass $1 million in your 401(k) or not the goal is to maximize the amount accumulated there for retirement.  The steps outlined above can help you to do this.  Are you ready to start down the path of becoming a 401(k) millionaire?

Please feel free to contact me with your questions. 

Check out an online service like Personal Capital  to manage all of your accounts all in one place.  Please check out our Resources page for more tools and services that you might find useful.

What I’m Reading – Jay Cutler Superstar Edition

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Far too much time on the local newscasts has been devoted to the demotion of quarterback Jay Cutler to backup for this week’s game against the Detroit Lions.  The Bears have had a dismal season and the very sub-par play of Cutler has been cited almost universally among fans and the media as a main cause.

What I’m Reading – Jay Cutler Superstar Edition

For those who don’t follow the NFL it should be noted that Cutler signed a huge contract extension just this past January that made him the highest paid quarterback in the league.  This means he makes more than Aaron Rodgers, Peyton Manning and Drew Brees to name a few.

As a finance blogger how could I refer to him as anything less than a superstar, a financial superstar to be precise?  His agent clearly did a masterful selling job on the Bears. This is likely why the Bears last great quarterback was a gentleman named Sid Luckman back in the 1940s.

Full disclosure I am an avid Green Bay Packers fan and love the dysfunction that is the Chicago Bears.

In the spirit of Jay Cutler’s superstar agent here are some financial articles that you might find interesting.

3 Reasons Not to Raid Your Retirement Accounts by Eric McWhinnie via Retirement Cheat Sheet.

Retirement vs College Saving in a Nutshell by Jim Blankenship at his blog Financial Ducks in a Row.

The World Economy In 2015 Will Carry Troubling Echoes Of The Late 1990s according to The Economist via Business Insider.

Opinion: The hidden truth about rebalancing your portfolio by Mark Hulbert via Marketwatch.

5 RMD Pitfalls to Avoid by Christine Benz via Morningstar.

Why Does Everybody Recommend Complex Portfolios? by Mike Piper at his blog Oblivious Investor.

14 Holiday Activities to Build Wealth and Memories by Barbara Friedberg at her blog Barbara Friedberg Personal Finance.

I continue in my role as a contributor to Investopedia and here are my last three articles for them:

Is An Online Financial Advisor Right For You?

How To Manage A Cash Windfall

Tips For Managing Inflation In Retirement

Here’s hoping for a long Packers run through the playoffs.  Is that Jay Cutler I hear laughing all the way to the bank?

Check out an online service like Personal Capital to manage all of your accounts all in one place or purchase the latest version of Quicken.  Check out our Resources page for more tools and services that you might find useful.

Photo source:  Mike Shadle and Wikipedia

My Top 10 Most Read Posts of 2014

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It’s hard to believe that 2014 is almost over.  I hope that it has been a good year for you and your families.

Readership here at The Chicago Financial Planner has increased every year since I started blogging back in 2009 for which I thank you my readers.  My hope is that some of the articles, whether written by me or by some of the excellent guest authors who have contributed their insights, have been useful and informative to you.

Here are my top 10 most read posts during 2014:

Life Insurance as a Retirement Savings Vehicle – A Good Idea?

4 Signs of a Lousy 401(k) Plan

Small Business Retirement Plans – SEP-IRA vs. Solo 401(k)

401(k) Fee Disclosure and the American Funds

My Thoughts on PBS Frontline The Retirement Gamble

Using Retirement Accounts to Pay Off Debt – A good Idea?

4 Reasons to Accept Your Company’s Buyout Offer

7 Retirement Savings Tips to Help Avoid Regret

Is a $100,000 a Year Retirement Doable?

5 Reasons to Consider a Solo 401(k)

Additionally I recently started writing for Investopedia, here is a link to my contributor page which includes links to all of my contributions to the site.

I want to thank all of my readers again.  I also invite you to contact me to ask any questions that you might have, to tell me what you like or don’t like about the site, and to suggest topics that you would like to see covered here in the future.

I hope that you and your family have a great holiday season.

7 Reasons to Avoid 401(k) Loans

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One of the features of many 401(k) plans is the ability for participants to take a loan against their balance.  There are rules governing what the loans can be used for, the number of loans that can be outstanding at one time, and the percentage of your account balance that can be borrowed.  Additionally there is a time limit by which these loans need to be repaid.

It is the decision of the organization sponsoring the plan whether or not to allow loans and also as to what they can be used for.  Typical reasons allowed are for college expenses for your children, medical expenses, the purchase of a home, or to prevent eviction from your home.

The flexibility offered by allowing loans is often touted as one of the good features of the 401(k).  However taking a loan from your 401(k) also carries some downsides.  Here are 7 reasons to avoid 401(k) loans.  

Leaving your job triggers repayment 

If you leave your job with an outstanding loan against your 401(k) account the balance can become due and payable immediately.  This applies whether you leave your job voluntarily or involuntarily via some sort of termination.  While your regularly scheduled repayments are deducted from your paycheck, you will need to come up with the funds to repay the loan upon leaving your job or it will become a taxable distribution.  Additionally if you are under 59 ½ a 10% penalty might also apply.

Opportunity costs in a rising market

While loan repayments do carry an interest component which you essentially pay to yourself, the interest rate might be much lower than what you might have earned on your investments in the plan during a rising stock market.  Obviously this will depend upon the market conditions and how you would have invested the money.  This can lead to a lower balance at retirement resulting in a lower standard of living or possibly necessitating that you work longer than you had planned.

There are fees involved 

There are often fees for loan origination, administration, and maintenance which you will be responsible for paying.

Interest is not tax deductible 

Even if the purpose of the loan is to purchase your principal residence interest on 401(k) loans is not tax-deductible.

No flexibility in the repayment terms 

The loan payments are taken from your paycheck which all things being equal will reduce the amount of money you bring home each pay period.  If you run into financial difficulty you cannot change the terms of the loan repayment.

You might be tempted to reduce your 401(k) deferrals 

The fact that you now have to repay the loan from your paycheck might cause you to reduce the amount you are saving for retirement via your salary deferral to the plan.

You will have less at retirement 

A loan against your 401(k) plan will result in lower nest egg at retirement.  Given the difficulty many in the United States already have in accumulating a sufficient amount for retirement this only adds to the problem.

You should especially avoid 401(k) loans if:

  • You are near retirement
  • You feel that your job security is in jeopardy
  • You are planning to leave your job in the near future
  • You are already behind in saving for retirement
  • You have other sources to obtain the money you need
  • You feel that repaying the loan will be financial hardship 

Look life happens and sometimes taking a loan from your 401(k) plan can’t be avoided.  The economy has been tough for many over the past few years.  However if at all possible avoid taking a 401(k) loan and rather let that money grow for your retirement.  Down the road you will be glad you did.

Please feel free to contact me with your questions. 

Check out an online service like Personal Capital to manage all of your accounts all in one place.  Also check out our Resources page for more tools and services that you might find useful.