Objective information about financial planning, investments, and retirement plans

What I’m Reading – NFL Training Camp Edition

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Training camp is in full swing for the teams in the NFL which means the start of football is only about a month away.  I enjoyed the NCAA men’s basketball tournament, the huge win in the Stanley Cup finals for our Blackhawks and certainly the great performance by our women in winning soccer’s World Cup.  However football is the end all be all for me in terms of sports.

I love the college game but as regular readers here know I am a lifelong and diehard fan of the America’s team, the Green Bay Packers.  Let’s hope the defense holds up this season and they can shake off their collapse in the NFC title game and go on to return the Lombardi Trophy to its rightful home.

Here are a few articles I suggest for some good financial reading:

Robert Powell writes The secret to a happier, healthier life?  Just retire at Market Watch.

Barbara Friedberg shares The Dark side of High Yield Investing at US News.

Dan Caplinger discusses Why a 401(k) Match Matters More Than You Think at The Motley Fool.

Michelle Singletary asks There is a retirement storm coming.  Are you prepared? at The Washington Post.

Sterling Raskie shares How to Interview Your (Potential) Financial Advisor at Getting Your Financial Ducks in a Row.

Lisa Hay urges retirees to Have a plan when tailoring retirement draws to your income at Market Watch.

Have a great week.  As I requested in my last post What Should I Write About? please contact me regarding any financial topics that you would like to see covered as well as any questions or comments you might have about the blog.  

What Should I Write About?

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For those of you who are regular readers and for those who just visit occasionally you may have noticed that my last post on this blog was back in March.

After a several month hiatus from writing I plan to resume writing new posts shortly.  While I have some ideas as to what I want to write about, I thought this would be a good time to ask you my readers what you are interested in.

• What financial topics would you like to know more about?
• What questions do you have?
• What financial issues are keeping you up at night?

I’m very interested in hearing from you and writing about topics of interest to you and your situation.  If there is something you’d like to me to write about or perhaps a question that you would like me to address please use our contact form or email me directly at admin@thechicagofinancialplanner.com. The blog’s tagline “Objective information about financial planning, investments, and retirement plans” is still what will guide me as I move forward.

Thank you for your continued readership.

Roger

 

Schwab Intelligent Portfolios: The Evolution of the Robo Advisor?

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Charles Schwab (SCHW) recently launched its much anticipate entry into the Robo Advisor space, Schwab Intelligent Portfolios.  Schwab instantly will become a major player here simply because they are Schwab.

I honest don’t know if Intelligent Portfolios are a good thing for investors or not.  I do suspect that the introduction of Schwab Intelligent Portfolios represents a big step in the evolution of Robo Advisors.

Competitor reactions to Schwab Intelligent Portfolios 

Betterment CEO Jonathan Stein appeared on CNBC recently and frankly I was taken aback at how critical he was of the new Schwab offering.

Wealthfront’s CEO wrote a very critical post about Schwab’s entrance into the Robo Advisor space.

These reactions alone tell me that Schwab’s Intelligent Portfolios are a big deal and a potential game changer in the Robo Advisor world.  Wealthfront and Betterment are two of the stronger players in the Robo Advisor space.  Both are well-funded and Betterment has forged a deal with Fidelity to allow them to offer Betterment to the advisors who custody assets with Fidelity Institutional.  The reactions of these executives tell me they are more than a bit concerned about Schwab entering their space.

Schwab Intelligent Portfolios 

Schwab Intelligent Portfolios have a low $5,000 minimum investment, they carry no management fees, investors will not incur any direct transaction costs and there are no account fees.

Like most Robo Advisors, Intelligent Portfolios will be powered by algorithms using ETFs across 20 different asset classes, as well as a cash allocation invested in a bank account at a Schwab-affiliated bank.

The Schwab Intelligent Portfolios are bit different than other Robo Advisor models in that they will allocate a significant percentage of an investor’s portfolio to several Schwab ETFs based on the fundamental indexing approach of advisor Rob Arnott. The service will utilize model portfolios for investors based upon their goals and risk tolerance.

Additionally each of the portfolios has a significant allocation to cash via Schwab’s affiliated bank. The allocation would range from 7% for a 30-year-old investor to 15% for a more conservative 65 year-old investor. The cash allocations have initially drawn a skeptical reaction from some financial advisors.

While there will be no fees for the service, Schwab will make money from the expense ratios of the ETFs, as well as the money invested via the Schwab affiliated bank.  The Intelligent Portfolios will include tax-loss harvesting for investors with at least $50,000 invested as well as automatic rebalancing.

Additionally Schwab has announced the launch of an institutional version of the Intelligent Portfolios during the second quarter of 2015 for use by financial advisors who custody assets with Schwab Institutional.

The Evolution of Robo Advisors 

Schwab’s Intelligent Portfolios represents the latest entry into the Robo Advisor space by a major financial services firms.

Fidelity Investments has formed partnerships with Betterment and Learnvest that allows financial advisors who custody assets with them to offer these services to their clients under their own umbrella.  This is a great way for these advisors to court younger clients who might not meet their normal minimums and work with them in a meaningful way until they might become full-service clients in the future.

Vanguard has launched its own Robo Advisor service and it has drawn over $4.5 billion in assets without any advertising.  Most of this money has likely come from investors with money already at Vanguard and represents an additional 20 to 40 basis points in revenue on money that is already there.

For the very reasonable fee Vanguard offers clients a financial plan, asset allocation advice, rebalancing and ongoing financial advice.  They likely will roll this service out more widely in the near future and they reportedly are thinking of offering a version for financial advisors whom their institutional sales group already calls on.

Overall the Robo Advisor offerings by Schwab, Fidelity, Vanguard, TD Ameritrade and some others represent the next step in the evolution of Robo Advisors.

At some point I envision the use of Robo Advisors by the likes of Schwab and the financial advisors who custody with them almost like Major League Baseball uses the minor leagues as a farm system.  Clients who want solid advice but who don’t meet the minimums of many financial advisors will start out in some sort of online service and as their accounts grow and their needs evolve they will move to the “big leagues” and become full service clients.

Overall I view the evolution of the Robo Advisor as a good thing for both clients and financial advisors.  For clients this represents another choice in how to get financial advice.  For financial advisors it represents a viable way to serve clients who the financial services industry has not done a good job of serving in the past.

Read more about Robo Advisors 

We Interrupt This Program To Bring You… RoboWars a great piece on I heart Wall Street.

Broken Values & Bottom Lines the piece I mentioned above by Wealthfront CEO Adam Nash.

I asked three robots how I should invest, got three different answers by Yahoo! Finance’s Michael Santolli.

I’ve written several pieces on the topic for Investopedia:

Schwab’s New Robo-Advisor Service Explained

Robo-Advisors and a Human Touch: Better Together?

Is An Online Financial Advisor Right For You? 

I invite you to contact me to ask any questions that you might have, to tell me what you like or don’t like about the site, and to suggest topics that you would like to see covered here in the future. 

Please check out our Resources page for tools and services that you might find useful.

Do I Own Too Many Mutual Funds?

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In one form or another I’ve been asked by several readers “… do I own too many mutual funds?”  In several cases the question was prompted by the number of mutual fund holdings in brokerage accounts with major brokerage firms including brokerage wrap accounts.  One reader cited an account with $1.5 million and 35 mutual funds.

So how many mutual funds are too many?  There is not a single right answer but let’s try to help you determine the best answer for your situation.

The 3 mutual fund portfolio 

I would contend that a portfolio consisting of three mutual funds or ETFs could be well-diversified.  For example a portfolio consisting of the Vanguard Total Stock Market Index (VTSMX), the Vanguard Total International Stock Index (VGTSX) and the Vanguard Total Bond Index (VBMFX) would provide an investor with exposure to the U.S. stock and bond markets as well as non-U.S. developed and emerging markets equities.

As index funds the expenses are low and each fund will stay true to its investment style.  This portfolio could be replicated with lower cost share classes at Vanguard or Fidelity if you meet the minimum investment levels.  A very similar portfolio could also be constructed with ETFs as well.

This isn’t to say that three index funds or ETFs is the right number.  There may be some additional asset classes that are appropriate for your situation and certainly well-chosen actively managed mutual funds can be a fit as well.

19 mutual funds and little diversification 

A number of years ago a client engaged my services to review their portfolio.  The client was certain that their portfolio was well-diversified as he held several individual stocks and 19 mutual funds.

After the review, I pointed out that there were several stocks that were among the top five holdings in all 19 funds and the level of stock overlap was quite heavy.  These 19 mutual funds all held similar stocks and had the same investment objective.  While this client held a number of different mutual funds he certainly was not diversified.  This one-time engagement ended just prior to the Dot Com market decline that began in 2000, assuming that his portfolio stayed as it was I suspect he suffered substantial losses during that market decline.

How many mutual funds can you monitor? 

Can you effectively monitor 20, 30 or more mutual fund holdings?  Frankly this is a chore for financial professionals with all of the right tools.  As an individual investor is this something that you want to tackle?  Is this a good use of your time?  Will all of these extra funds add any value to your portfolio?

What is the motivation for your broker? 

If you are investing via a brokerage firm or any financial advisor who suggests what seems like an excessive number of mutual funds for your account you should ask them what is behind these recommendations.  Do they earn compensation via the mutual funds they suggest for your portfolio? Their firm might have a revenue-generating agreement with certain fund companies.  Additionally the rep might be required to use many of the proprietary mutual funds offered by his or her employer.

Circumstances will vary 

If you have an IRA, a taxable brokerage account and a 401(k) it’s easy to accumulate a sizable collection of mutual funds.  Add in additional accounts for your spouse and the number of mutual funds can get even larger.

The point here is to keep the number of funds reasonable and manageable.  Your choices in your employer’s retirement plan are beyond your control and you may not be able to sync them up with your core portfolio held outside of the plan.

Additionally this is a good reason to stay on top of old 401(k) plans and consolidate them into an IRA or a new employer’s plan when possible.

The Bottom Line 

Mutual funds remain the investment of choice for many investors.  It is possible to construct a diversified portfolio using just a few mutual funds or ETFs.

Holding too many mutual funds can make it difficult to monitor and evaluate your funds as well as your overall portfolio.

Please feel free to contact me with your questions. 

Please check out our Resources page for more tools and services that you might find useful.

What is a Hedge Fund?

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The term hedge fund is used often in the financial press.  I suspect, however, that many investors do not really know what a hedge fund is.

What is a Hedge Fund?

 

 

 

 

Investopedia defines a hedge fund as follows:

“An aggressively managed portfolio of investments that uses advanced investment strategies such as leveraged, long, short and derivative positions in both domestic and international markets with the goal of generating high returns (either in an absolute sense or over a specified market benchmark).” 

Here are a few basics about hedge funds to help you understand them.  Note this is certainly not meant to be an in-depth tutorial but rather is meant to provide an introduction to hedge funds.

Who can invest in hedge funds? 

In order to invest in a hedge fund you must be an accredited investor.  The current definition of an accredited investor is someone with a net worth of $1 million (excluding the equity in their home) and at least $200,000 in income ($300,000 with a spouse) over the past two years.  Many hedge fund investors are institutional investors such as foundations, endowments and pension plans.  About 65 percent of the capital invested in hedge funds comes from institutional investors.

What is the minimum investment? 

The minimum required to invest is often $1 million or more though some smaller hedge funds and funds of funds may have lower minimums.  New companies like Sliced Investing are seeking to change these high minimums by allowing investors to invest as little as $20,000.

Do I have access to my money? 

Unlike mutual funds, ETFs, closed-end funds and individual stocks hedge funds typically do not offer daily access to your money.

Some hedge funds allow investors to subscribe (invest) or redeem their money monthly, for others this might be quarterly or based upon some other time period.  Most hedge funds will require advanced notice for redemptions which might be as long as 180 days.  This allows the fund managers time to raise sufficient cash and allows for an orderly sale of fund investments especially if the redemption is a significant amount.

Some hedge funds also require a lock-up which means that there are no redemptions allowed during this initial period.  A typical lock-up period is one year, though some are as long as two years.  In some cases the lock-up period is “soft” meaning that redemption can be made but there will often be a penalty ranging from 2 percent to as high as 10 percent. 

Some hedge funds may also have the ability to enforce “gates” on redemptions which means they can decide to process only a portion of the redemptions requested.  This provision came into focus during the 2008-2009 market downturn as hedge fund redemptions requests swelled as many investors sought to raise cash.

What types of fees are charged? 

The fees charged by hedge funds vary widely.

Many hedge funds charge a management fee of 2 percent or more.

There might also be incentive fees of 10 to 20 percent of the fund’s profits or more.  This rewards the fund manager for superior performance.  The flip side of this is that the manager generally only collects an incentive fee if the fund’s performance exceeds its former highs, known as a high water mark.

If a fund loses 5 percent in a given year, no incentive fees will be paid to the manager the following year until the 5 percent loss is made up.

The term two and 20 is a common one in the hedge fund world meaning that the fund would charge a 2 percent management fee and a 20 percent incentive fee.  This may seem pricey but if the performance is stellar then investors won’t mind paying it. 

What types of investment strategies are available? 

There is a vast range of investment strategies across the hedge fund landscape.  These might include long-short, global macro, market neutral, convertible arbitrage, distressed securities and many others.  Additionally there are a number of fund of funds offered which means that the fund offers a collection of strategies and fund managers under one umbrella.   

What should I consider before investing in a hedge fund?

From reading the above you might ask yourself why would I invest in hedge funds?  Let’s remember that hedge funds are considered alternative investments.  Ideally they will have a relatively low correlation to the traditional long-only equity and fixed income investments in your portfolio.  At their best well-managed hedge funds can add balance and reduce the overall risk of your portfolio, in some cases the strategies are designed to provide absolute returns across all investing environments.

Before investing in a hedge fund or any alternative investment make sure you have considered and fully understand the following:

  • The fund’s investment strategy.
  • How this investment strategy fits with your overall portfolio and investing strategy.
  • What the fund “brings to the table” that you can’t get with more traditional long-only stock and bond investments.
  • Who is managing the fund and their history and investment track record.
  • The required minimum investment.
  • Any redemption restrictions and/or lock-up periods.  Make sure that you won’t need to tap this money during this time period. 

The Bottom Line 

Like any investment option you might consider it is important to understand the pros and cons of hedge funds in general and any specific fund or strategy that you might be considering for your portfolio.

Disclosure: This blog post was written for Sliced Investing pursuant to a paid content arrangement I have with the company’s representatives as part of an effort to raise awareness about alternative investment options. All views expressed are entirely my own, and were not influenced or directed by Sliced Investing.

Photo courtesy of Wikipedia

What I’m Reading – Winter Chill Edition

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It’s Valentine’s Day this weekend and it’s really cold out.  For the next week we are supposed to be in the “deep freeze” so to speak.  Our friends in the Boston area are supposed to get slammed with even more snow.  We will be spending Valentine’s Day inside, I’m making shrimp scampi for dinner and I made sure that we had appropriate sweets and some bubbly to celebrate as well.

Here are a few financial articles I suggest for some good financial reading this weekend:

Barbara Friedberg shares The Power of Raising 401(k) Contributions at Investopedia.

Anna Wroblewska details The 3 Keys of Effective Financial Planning at The Motley Fool.

Priya Anand warns us Looking for love? Watch out for these 3 scams at Market Watch.

Michael Santoli asks Negative interest rates: Coming to America? At Yahoo Finance.

Kevin Mercadante shows us how to determine Are You Being Paid What You’re Worth? at Cash Money Life.

Mike Piper answers How Do Child’s Benefits Affect Social Security Claiming Strategies? at Oblivious Investor.

Michelle Fox tells us Here’s how a janitor amassed an $8m fortune at CNBC via Yahoo Finance. 

I continue in my role as a contributor for Investopedia and here are my most recent articles for them:

Which ETFs You Should Avoid

How Advisors Can Fight Shrinking Management Fees

A Financial Advisor’s Guide to Millennial Clients

Robo-Advisors and a Human Touch: Better Together?

Planning for Healthcare Costs in Retirement

Enjoy the rest of your weekend.  Happy Valentines Day and stay warm.

Please feel free to contact me with your questions. 

Check out an online service like Personal Capital to manage all of your accounts all in one place.  Please check out our Resources page for more tools and services that you might find useful.

Why Using Home Equity to Invest in the Stock Market is a Bad Idea

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Not that I needed one but an email newsletter that I received from attorney Dale Ledbetter recently served as an excellent reminder what a poor idea using home equity to invest in stocks really is.  From his email:

Strong stock market encourages the resurrection of a bad practice – borrowing money against the value of your home to play the market. The horror story set out below is likely to be repeated if these practices continue.

A married couple, both of whom were in their late 80s, was persuaded by their bank to take out 100% value equity line of credit against their home. They were then persuaded to turn these “borrowed assets” over to the bank’s securities subsidiary where they were told the return would easily exceed the cost of the credit line. 

The broker then advised the couple to put 95% of the total proceeds into a single stock. The securities account tanked, resulting in an almost 100% loss. In the meantime, the house dropped in value by $100,000, resulting in a foreclosure proceeding. The bank then refused to permit a $150,000 short sale to bona fide buyers. 

The husband died. The wife, who now lives in a constant care facility, is entering bankruptcy to force the bank to take the house. 

Of course, the bank and their securities subsidiary blame it all on the elderly couple who they described as “sophisticated investors.” Both husband and wife had been schoolteachers and had no training or experience in the securities industry or in investment strategies. The fact that both were in their late 80s and suffering from diminished capacity, was not enough to deter the aggressive sales tactics of their “trusted advisors.” 

Aside from what would seem to be blatant investment fraud on the part of the bank and their advisory unit, this piece reiterates why using your home equity to invest in the stock market is such a bad idea.  Here are a few specific reasons that I discourage this practice.

Did you really forget the 2008 housing market crash this soon? 

For those with short memories an overinflated housing market crashed and triggered a meltdown in the economy and drastically reduced the value of many homes.  We are still recovering from this and although home values have improved in many parts of the country we learned that home prices will not always go up and that real estate is not the safe store of value we were led to believe.

To put this another way let’s say you tap your home equity to invest in the stock market.  What if the value of your home decreases 10 percent, 20 percent or more?  Now you have to pay back that home equity loan on a house that isn’t worth nearly as much as when you took out the loan.  You could find yourself underwater on your home or worse in foreclosure.  You could also find that your plans to fund a comfortable retirement or your children’s college education are out the window.

What if your investments tank?

Much like these poor folks in Mr. Ledbetter’s example above, not all investments are a sure thing.  What happens if you borrow against your home equity to invest in the stock market and things don’t work out?  If the specific investments you or someone else chose drop in value you are now stuck with investments worth less than your original investment and you will be stuck paying off the loan which is still based upon the amount borrowed.

Even if you went with a few index funds and the stock market drops you will find yourself in the same boat.  Again this is a great strategy to ruin your otherwise well-planned financial future.

Who exactly is suggesting this idea? 

Like the poor folks in Mr. Ledbetter’s example take a look at anyone suggesting this idea to you with a very jaundiced eye.  What is in it for them?  Are you the only one with any real skin in the game?

In the example above the bank won at last twice.  They got the interest on the loan and their brokerage unit made money via fees and perhaps other sources on the investment side.  They had no skin in the game and will likely come out whole even after the foreclosure.  

The Bottom Line

Generally, in my opinion, anyone who would suggest this idea to an investor is motivated by greed and does not have the best interests of their clients at heart.  Using your home’s equity to invest in the stock market is just not a sound idea.

There might be instances where tapping home equity to invest can be a good idea, but these are very limited and should only be undertaken by truly sophisticated investors who fully understand the risks involved.

Please feel free to contact me with your questions. 

Please check out our Resources page for more tools and services that you might find useful.